7 Must-Have Java Libraries for Selenium Automation

The Selenium framework automates how browsers work. For automating user interaction on pure HTML and JavaScript applications running in browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, and others, it provides several tools and application programming interfaces (APIs). Selenium does not support the rich internet application (RIA) technologies Silverlight, Flash, Flex, or JavaFX. As an open-source tool, Selenium offers a significant benefit over other testing tools as there is no cost involved in obtaining a license. Other reasons why Selenium is a popular automation tool are listed below:

  • The testing platform can be any of these three operating systems: Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux.
  • You can run tests using any of these web browsers: Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari, or Opera.
  • It is integrated with Jenkins, Maven, and Docker to perform continuous testing.
  • It can be used with tools like TestNG and JUnit to organize test cases and produce results.

WebDriver for Selenium

Selenium WebDriver, or Selenium 2.0, is a group of bindings for several languages that operate a browser properly. The previous version of this was called Selenium Remote Control. It is Selenium Remote Control’s replacement and consists of a driver, API, Library, and framework that work together to make it possible to run tests.

  • The Application Programming Interface (API) uses bindings to translate scripts written in other scripting languages into Selenese, Selenium’s native language. The API and several language-specific bindings are in the Library, including Selenium Java, Selenium Ruby, and Selenium dotnet.
  • In contrast, the executable module driver starts the browser instance and the test script. These drivers are tailored per particular browsers, such as Chromedriver for Google Chrome.
  • The connection between the WebDriver client and the browser/driver is verified during testing using various other frameworks. It is also feasible to run these tests simultaneously on many drivers with the help of a Selenium Grid.
  • Offers compatibility with modern browsers like Internet Explorer and Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari. Automated testing was carried out with Selenium IDE and WebDriver.
  • Selenium IDE is a plug-in for the Chrome and Firefox web browsers that can record typical browser usage and produce code in several programming languages for those usages.
  • Among the other programming languages in this group are Java, Python, Ruby, and C#.
  • It allows the testers to record the test scenario within the IDE and then play it out on the browser. The IDE will then be able to play back the recordings and highlight any code errors with red.
  • It allows test developers to set breakpoints to use them to debug specific test cases.
  • If multiple locators are utilized for each component in the integrated development environment, execution will be successful (IDE).

As a result, the Selenium IDE is excellent for performing regression testing. During this time, it may be used to prototype errors, which is helpful because the code may need to be more understandable. Selenium WebDriver testing your website across many browsers is therefore strongly advised.

Benefits of automating with Selenium Framework

Automated testing has multiplied the testing scope and ensures that customers are satisfied regardless of their browser or device. Automation testing was created to make sure a website is accessible across a range of browsers.

Everyone, from established companies to newbies, employs Selenium, the most powerful open-source automation testing suite. Statistics show that it is used by more than 57,000 companies worldwide, giving it a market share of 24.63% among other software testing tools.

While primarily used by companies that develop software and offer IT services, Selenium has moved beyond these industries. Additionally, it provides healthcare, finance, staffing, and recruiting services.

The main element contributing to Selenium’s universal appeal is that it can be used for free. This ensures that organizations are using a product that will be routinely updated throughout the process, in addition to helping to minimize expenses.

Its multi-dimensional flexibility in scripting languages, browsers, operating systems, and integrations broadens the scope of its test coverage. This allows companies to develop highly reliable and functional web applications.

Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby, and .Net are the languages supported for writing Selenium test scripts. Many testers may therefore use it without any language barriers. You can perform it using Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, or Opera on Windows, Linux, or Mac computers. This offers thorough testing for browser compatibility across various browsers and provides reliable environment support.

Java Libraries

Java is frequently rated as one of the most popular programming languages. The standard Library of the computer language, which includes Java.lang, Java.Util, and Java.Math libraries, among others, provide access to Java’s extensive library system. Java provides access to more than a thousand additional libraries besides the standard ones.

Java Frameworks

Java Testing Frameworks are used widely to automate the testing process. Developers can write and run tests for their code using these libraries and tools, and they can also examine the test results.

The core structure of the tests and the strategy to use throughout the entire testing process are determined by Java testing frameworks. Java testing frameworks can include rules for test data, test results, repositories, and scripting. It serves as a framework for testing the software and a manual for how the complete process will be carried out once it is implemented.

The Java testing framework is the set of methods and classes that allows developers to execute and write integration tests, functional tests, and unit tests for web applications.

There are several advantages to using the testing frameworks for Java listed below.

  • They can significantly reduce the time needed to create trustworthy applications.
  • They excel in providing secure solutions.
  • Millions of consumers make use of Java-based testing frameworks. They consequently have a high degree of community support.
  • These are reasonably priced.

LambdaTest is one of the finest platforms for web developers and testers to access the tools and make their work much more manageable. LambdaTest offers a cross-browser testing platform. It supports all Java testing frameworks and allows testers to test their cases on their online Selenium Grid, supporting over 3000+ real browsers and operating system combinations, including the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. It also provides an integrated testing environment with features like test session recording, bug logging, network throttling, responsive testing, manual testing, and more.

7 Must-Have Java Libraries for Selenium Automation

  1. Mockito

Mocking frameworks for Java classes are plenty, such as JMock and PowerMock. Mockito due to its easy-to-use application programming interface (API), excellent documentation, and numerous informative examples.

Mocking is one of the most crucial techniques used in modern unit testing because it allows you to test your code independently of any other components. Hence, in addition to JUnit, every Java developer is advised to become familiar with a mocking framework. Although Mockito is my preferred mocking framework, you can also look at PowerMock or JMock.

  1. TestNG

It is a testing framework that drew inspiration from NUnit and JUnit, but it added many new features that increased its power and ease of use. Some examples of these additional functionalities include annotations, executing your tests in arbitrarily vast thread pools with multiple policies available, and so on.

The use of annotations from JUnit and the inclusion of the Hamcrest matches has led to a reduction of the gap between JUnit and TestNG; however, the decision ultimately lies with you.

  1. Spock System

For applications written in Groovy and Java, Spock provides an extra framework for testing. It was created using the programming language Groovy, making it an extremely expressive and direct specification language.

Spock will make your test more manageable and clear because it uses the JUnit runner. Spok library is compatible with many IDEs, integration servers, and build tools.

  1. Cucumber

Cucumber is another top-notch tool for performing automated integration tests, but its ability for specification makes it stand out from similar tools. The Cucumber allows the user to know how the system functions from the client’s and developer’s point of view. The superior code quality in Cucumber makes it a low-maintenance library and also minimizes any associated risks.

Cucumber merges the test and requirement documentation into a cohesive live document. Furthermore, you will be guaranteed that the specifications are always up to date because Cucumber will test them automatically.

  1. Spring Test

Spring MVC is a comprehensive testing framework that enables in-depth testing without a web container.

This Library is one of the best for creating automated tests for various Spring applications. It gives Spring-powered applications, including MVC controllers, first-rate support for creating unit and integration tests used to validate the functioning of the application.

  1. DbUnit:

Many Java programs, including web and core Java applications, require a database. That is the most challenging obstacle to pass while carrying out unit testing.

Connecting integration tests to development or testing databases is a risky practice since anyone can alter the schema and data, including tables and stored procedures. The automated integration tests you need to run will fail as a result.

The database should be put into a known state using the DbUnit extension of JUnit before performing an integration test to ensure that the database only contains the correct information.

DbUnit is a handy tool since it enables us to separate the test data from the code, despite some of its issues.

  1. TestContainers:

A Java tool called Testcontainers offers quick, throwaway versions of popular databases, Selenium web browsers, and other programs. It is made to support JUnit tests. You can also construct effective integration tests for Spring Boot projects by combining Testcontainers with JUnit 5 or JUnit 4.

Test containers are a library that fundamentally alters how integration and end-to-end tests are created for Java applications, much like Lombok did. Test containers give you the power to manage the whole lifespan of throwaway testing containers.


Each Java Library is unique and has its advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, it depends upon your project requirements and the types of testing you would like to conduct for the applications.

In today’s scenario, the developers are also expected to know about automation testing and get involved in the procedures. Developers are not required to be experts, but they should have the core idea behind writing test cases to validate their code automatically.